Turkish anthem wiki

İstiklâl Marşı (en. Independence March) is the national anthem of the Republic of Turkey.It became the national anthem on 12 March 1921, two and a half years before Turkey became a country. This song is meant for a motivational musical saga for the troops who have fought in the Turkish War of Independence, and an aspiration for the country's independence The İstiklâl Marşı (English: Independence March) is the national anthem of the Republic of Turkey, officially adopted on 12 March 1921 —two-and-a-half years.. Ottoman woman Composers - Princess Refia Sultan *1840 - Classical Turkish Music. Ottoman Imperial Anthem - Sergi Marşı Exhibition March 1863 The İstiklâl Marşı (Independence March) is the Turkish National Anthem, officially adopted on 12 March 1921 - two and a half years before the 29 October 1923..

İstiklâl Marşı - Simple English Wikipedia, the free

Motto:Firme y feliz por la unión (Spanish)Firm and Happy for the Union Anthem:Himno Nacional del Perú (Spanish)National Anthem of Peru CapitalLima Largest city New Jannaj National language Spanish Regional language Akk Government Parliamentary republic - Consul - Proconsul Legislature Congress Independence from Spain - Declared 28 June 1821 - Recognized 4 March 1824 Population. The Republic of Turkey, more commonly known simply as Turkey, is a transcontinentalcountry located mainly on theAnatolian peninsulainwestern Asia, with a smaller portion on theBalkan peninsulainsouth-eastern Europe. It is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to the north-west, Georgia to the north-east, Armenia, Azerbaijan (via the exclave of Nakhchivan) and Iran to the east, and Iraq and Syria to. This is a dynamic list of YouTube channels (both active and inactive) pertaining to patriotic songs including military marches and national anthems

National Anthem: Turkey - İstiklâl Marşı *NEW VERSION

  1. ↑ Singapore Embassy honors anniversary of Republic Day with Chloe Chua's rendition of Turkish national anthem. Daily Sabah. 29 October 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020. ↑ Wai Yee, Yip (2018-04-23). Chloe Chua, 11, surprised by Menuhin Competition win. The Straits Times. Retrieved 2020-12-18
  2. Aşiroğlu, Orhan Gâzi, ed (1992) (in Turkish). The Last Ottoman Caliph, Abdülmecid. Volume I. Istanbul: Burak Yayınevi. ISBN 9789757645177. OCLC 32085609. Duran, Tülay, ed (1999) (in Turkish). Padişah Portreleri (Portraits of the Ottoman Empire's Sultans). Volume I. Sirkeci, Istanbul: Association of Historical Research and Istanbul.
  3. or character in the series Hetalia: Axis Powers. 1 Appearance 2 Personality And Interests 3 Relationships 3.1 Greece 3.2 Sealand 3.3 Turkey 3.4 Cyprus 4 Trivia 4.1 A.
  4. The Ottoman Empire, officially the Sublime Ottoman State, is a Middle Eastern country with a rich history and is widely considered to be the vanguard of order in the Orient and the protector of Islam all around the globe. Once one of the greatest empires in history - spanning three continents and ruling over a multi-ethnic multi-religious populace in the hundreds of thousands - the Ottoman.
  5. Mottoدولت ابد مدتDevlet-i Ebed-müddetThe Eternal State AnthemOttoman imperial anthem Capital Istanbul Government Monarchy Sultan -1918-1923 Mehmed VI Grand Vizier -1920-1923 Ahmed Tevfik Pasha History -1299 Founded -1402-1414 Interregnum -1876-1878 1. Constitutional -1908-1918 2. Constitutional -November 1, 1922 Abolishment of the Sultanate -July 24, 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.
  6. Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation

Anthem various Capital: Söğüt (c. 1299-1331) Nicaea (1331-1335) Bursa (1335-1363 Adrianople (1363-1453) Constantinople (1453-1951) Capital-in-exile: Ada Kaleh (1951-1977) Religion: Sunni Islam Demonym: Ottoman Turkish Government: Absolute monarchy (1299-1876; 1878-1908) Constitutional monarchy (1876-1878; 1908-1940; 1948. Over on Reddit someone asked for help to write their own national anthem. While it's always more original to do this yourself, there exists a free and easy National Anthem Lyrics Generator to help you write one. Source: Build Your Own National Anthem (Slate, 6 February 2014

Imperial Anthem of Ottoman Empire Yenişehir Wiki Fando

Roblox Anthem Real is a game created by phoca on January 13, 2017. It is a game that recreates the famous Roblox anthem as a Roblox game and not a video. The Easter eggs and Roblox culture references of the game are... Roblox Contests Common Name: (3+ If visits 5+) Murder Games Welcome to ROBLOX.. Turkey in the Straw is a well-known American folk song dating from the early 19th century. The song's tune was first popularized in the late 1820s and early 1830s by blackface performers, notably George Washington Dixon, Bob Farrell and George Nichols. Another song, Zip Coon, was sung to the same tune. This version was first published between 1829 and 1834 in either New York or Baltimore.

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Anthem is an open-world, third-person RPG. Players don Exo-Suits called Javelins, each of which has different abilities. With them, players can take out massive enemies, fly, and swim underwater. Turkey (in Turkish, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan), officially Recep Tayyip Erdogan's The Holy Turkish Empire, is America's youngest brother in Middle East and Southeastern Europe.. Unlike its sibling, Israel, this country of imported Anatolians selling kebab is strictly secular, as it has been ever since Young Turks founded it to resist the Ottoman Empire.Turks are proud of their Central Asian roots. National anthem of Turkey‎ (2 C, 7 F) National anthem of Turkmenistan‎ (1 C, 5 F) U National anthem of the United Arab Emirates‎ (1 F) National anthem of Uganda‎ (4 F National Anthem İstiklâl Marşı. Capital City: Ankara: Largest City: Istanbul: Official language(s) Turkish: Official religion(s) None official (Secular state) Short name: Turkey: Demonym: Turkish: Government: Parliamentary republic - President: Abdullah Gül - Prime Minister: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan - Speaker of the Parliament: Cemil Çiçek. National symbols of the Republic of Turkey consist of symbols to represent Turkish traditions and ideals that reflect the different aspects of the cultural life and history. Turkey has several official national symbols including a historic document, a flag, an emblem, an anthem, memorial towers as well as several national heroes

Sultanate of Turkey (1983: Doomsday) | Alternative History

Translation of 'Turkish National Anthem - İstiklal Marşı' by National Anthems & Patriotic Songs from Turkish to IP The Republic of Turkey is a country mostly located in the Anatolian Peninsula, but it also has a small portion called East Thrace located in the Balkans. Turkey has long been torn between the democratic and secular traditions of Europe and the generally opposite tendencies of its neighbors in the Middle East.Although formerly touted as an example for democracy in the Middle East, Turkey's. النيجر نشيد النيجر الوطني (The Nigerien) 1961: Maurice Albert Thiriet: Robert Jacquet and Nicolas Abel François Frionnet نيجيريا انهضوا أيها الوطنيون 1978: John A. Ilechukwu, Eme Etim Akpan, B. A. Ogunnaike, Sotu Omoigui, and P. O. Aderibigh

Istiklal Marsi - Turkey National Anthem English lyrics

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (北キプロス・トルコ共和国, Kita Kipurosu Toruko Kyōwakoku, simplified - きたキプロス・トルコきょうわこ), often referred to as TRNC and Northern Cyprus, is a minor character in the series Hetalia: Axis Powers. 1 Appearance 2 Personality And Interests 3 Relationships 3.1 Greece 3.2 Sealand 3.3 Turkey 3.4 Cyprus 4 Trivia 4.1 A. Turkey, ek republic hai. Turkey me 81 cities hai. Turkish ke paisa Turkish Lira bola jaawe hai. Iske capital Ankara hai jon ki Anatolia ke biich me hai lekin iske cultural aur economic center Istanbul.. Modern Turkey ke 1923 me Atatürk suruu karis rahaa. Ise pahile ii Ottoman Empire ke naam se jaana jaawat rahaa.. Purana jaman me ii jagah pe dher civilizations rahaa, jaise ki Hittites aur. national anthem. Wikipedia. national anthem ( plural national anthems ) The official song of a nation or sovereign state, generally of a patriotic nature and played at events to celebrate or honor said state. quotations . 2011 November 10, Jeremy Wilson, tEngland Under 21 5 Iceland Under 21 0: match report, in Telegraph ‎ [1] Anthem's vast, ever-changing world features unpredictable conditions, hazards, and enemies. Over time, Anthem will develop and expand - introducing unique stories, challenges, and world-shaking events. This world is both beautiful and deadly - and will test you on each expedition you embark on with your Freelancer team

Turkey : Wiki, Area, Biography, Location, Currency

Turkey (Turkis: Türkiye), kent offeecially as the Republic o Turkey (Turkis: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti) is a muckle kintra in Eurasie.It haes laund mairches wi Greece an Bulgarie tae the wast an Georgie, Armenie, Azerbaijan (kent thegither as the Caucasus kintras), Iran, Iraq an Sirie tae the east an watter mairches wi the Mediterranean Sea tae the sooth Be respectful of the Turkish anthem. Do not mock or mimick the Turkish anthem, as Turks are extremely proud and sensitive of their national symbols, and will be very offended. Do not desecrate the Turkish flag. Don't put it on places where people sit or stand, don't drag it, don't wrinkle it, don't contaminate it, don't use it as a dress or. She loves to be Turkish and loves to sing her National Anthem. Esra Bilgiç is from an Islam family and follows all the rules. In addition, she likes to celebrate all the major festivals like Eid ul-Adha, Al-Hijra, and more with her family. Education Qualification: School, College, And University. School: Not Known The Ottoman Empire came tae an end, as a regime unner an imperial monarchy, on November 1, Mehmed VI deportit frae Constantinople on November 17. It formally endit, as a de jure state, on Julie 24, 1923, unner the Treaty o Lausanne. Wi the Treaty of Lausanne (signed on Julie 24, 1923) the new Turkis State (still nae a Republic, whilk wis. Ymnos pros tin Eleutherian is also used as the national anthem of Greece. 2. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has a separate president (Mehmet Ali Talat). 3. Not recognised by Turkey, which instead recognises the TRNC. The TRNC is only recognised by Turkey 4. Of which 5,895 km² (2,276 mi²) is in the south and 3,355 km² (1,295 mi².

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The Vilayet of Armenia, officially the Vilayet of Erivan, is an autonomous vilayet (administrative unit) of the Ottoman Empire in the Caucasus. While the Sublime Porte at first officially recognized Armenia's independence in the Treaty of Batum of 1918, the young nation was later partitioned between the Ottomans, Azerbaijan and Georgia during the Caucasus Conference of late 1919. Since then. the PICO DAY anthem is an animated music video created by Jazza for Pico Day and released on April 30th, 2006. The song was made by Jazza himself (who portrays Pico in the song) and acts as a tribute and unofficial theme song to the Newgrounds holiday.. Lyrics. A group of Picos singing the chorus of the song. [Verse 1] Well, everyone knows that I'm the best but what if turkey stronker turkey is mega stronk Turkey can into africa, europe. asia it be Eurafriasia Japan National Anthem Lyrics at Lyrics On Demand. Japan Kimigayo (His Majesty's Reign) 君が代は 千代に八千代に さざれ石の いわおとなりて こけのむすまで [Romanized:] Kimi ga yo wa Chiyo ni yachiyo ni Sazare ishi no Iwao to nari te Koke no musu made [English:] Thousands of years of happy reign be thine; Rule on, my lord, till what are pebbles now By age united to.

Heroine Anthem Zero. 《Heroine Anthem Zero : Episode 1》 is an epic fantasy 2D side-scrolling ARPG with Japanese voiceovers and support for 7 languages. In a world unforgiven by God, it is a story of sacrifice and survival ten years in the making. Come and enter a world of adventure from long ago. Most popular community and official content. GET ANTHEM United States Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hong Kong Hungary India Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovakia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Thailand Turkey Ukraine United Arab Emirates United. view • edit Cyprus is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third-largest and third-most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, north of Israel, the Gaza Strip ( Palestinian region) and Egypt, and southeast of Greece. 1 Description 1.1 Appearance 1.2 Personality 1.3 Interests 1.4 Nickname(s) 1.5 Flag meaning 2 History 3.

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İstiklal Marşı (Independence March) is the national anthem of Turkey. The music of the anthem have been composed by Osman Zeki Ungor. The anthem was orchestrated by Edgar Manas. The lyrics of the anthem have been authored by Mehmet Akif Ersoy. The anthem was officially adopted as the national anthem on March 12, 1921. Of the total 10. August 16, 1960 - Present Cyprusball, officially known as Miley Cyrus and the Greek anthem stealer the Republic of Pornhub Cyprusball or technically Southern Cyprusball, is a divided countryball in Asia. He is split between Greek Cyprus, Turkeyball and UKball (bases). He is a member of Commonwealthball. Despite being located in Asia, Cyprusball can into EU and active Euros too. Recently. anthem - Vikisözlük İngilizce

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SPQR (originally The Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium) was founded on November 2nd, becoming the first nation created in Eastern Europe, and 5th worldwide. It is currently the 4th oldest nation on the server (USA falling), and third active (Rome being inactive) 1 History 1.1 The Time of the Imperators 1.1.1 (August 2 2018 - October 25 2018) 1.1.2 Terra Nova Announced 1.1.3 Creation of SPQR 1.1. Jammer Anthem is a members-only song for dens that was first released on August 9, 2011, as one of the default den music choices for members. On October 27, 2011, it was removed as a default music choice and was sold at the Music Shop instead, but in 2012 it was relocated to the New Year's Party, where it returns every year. The icon for this music shows a Koala and a Wolf dancing under a.

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The official national anthem of the European country of Spain is known as the Marcha Real, which in English translates to Royal March. It has also been referred to as The Grenadier March. Like its country of origin, the Spanish national anthem has a lengthy history and is notably one of the world's oldest anthems Be respectful of the Turkish anthem. Do not mock or mimick the Turkish anthem, as Turks are extremely proud and sensitive of their national symbols, and will be very offended. Be respectful of the Turkish flag. Don't put it on places where people sit or stand, don't drag it, don't wrinkle it, don't contaminate it, don't use it as a dress or.

Egyptball, officially the King of the Sun Arab Republic of Egyptball (Arabic: جمهورية مصر العربية), is a Golden Pharaoh countrypyramid anthem destroyer countryball in North Africa and the west of the Middle East. It is bordered by the Mediterranean to the north, Sudanball to the south, Israelcube to the east with the Red Sea, and Libyaball to the west. The countryball is. WorldVision Song Contest 141, often referred to as WV 141, was the one hundred forty-first edition of the WorldVision Song Contest. The contest took place in the West End district of Central London, London, following the country's victory at the 140th contest with the song Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen. It was the sixth time that London had hosted the contest, having previously done so in. The Canton Protocol Strategic Alliance Treaty (short form: CSAT, Simplified Chinese: 广东条约战略联盟组织) is an OPFOR faction in ArmA 3. They are a military and economic alliance that comprises of Eastern nations, and serve as a direct counterpart to NATO. The bulk of the coalition's military might is divided up into different forces depending on the region that they operate in; as. Atem (王 (アテム) Atemu, lit. king from a kanji) is an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who had sealed his own spirit/soul within the mystical Millennium Pendant. His spirit then took on the identity of Yami Yugi, which resided in the body of Yugi Muto, after Yugi solved the Millennium Puzzle. It was stated once that Yugi is the modern day version of Atem.[3]. He is the centerpiece of the Yu-Gi.

Turkey. Treaty of Lausanne (1923). Population and population density rankings based on 2005 figures. Human Development Report 2007/2008, page 230. United Nations Development Programme (2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-30. The Turkish lira ( Türk Lirası, TL) replaced the Turkish new lira on January 1, 2009. Turkey tabi Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira. G minor (Cambodia, Nepal, Slovakia and Turkey) Played at any key or mixed keys (Brazil, the Central African Republic, Georgia, Honduras, Italy, Montenegro, Morocco, the Philippines and South Africa For Providers. Log in to Availity. The Availity Portal offers health care professionals free access to real-time information and instant responses in a consistent format regardless of the payer. Log In. If your market doesn't use Availity for secure provider tasks, please return to the Provider Overview page for additional state-specific. GIRLS und PANZER Wiki. Girls und Panzer is set in an alternate universe where a sport known as Panzerfahren or Sensha-do - the art of fighting tanks, or tankery, is a lot more common than today. The sport is entirely practiced by girls and women and is considered feminine. The anime series follows the girls of Ooarai Girls Academy as they.

Turkey - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi

Controversially, perhaps, it's Uruguay that takes the top spot musically for David Mellor. It's an anthem with real bite. Definitely the best of the South American anthems, Uruguay's National Anthem sounds like it could have been written by Rossini, says David Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Turkish Galactic Empire of Recep Tayyip Erdogan), offically The Holy Galactic Turkish Empire of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, is America's youngest brother in the Middle East and Southeastern Europe, therefore a sibling of Israel.Like other nations with a past history of grandeur, it has allowed this history to get to its head and be an endless burden to its European. Türk Bayrağı Kanunu, the Turkish text of the Turkish Flag Law No. 2893 dated September 22, 1983, establishing the proportions, production and rules of usage of the flag of Turkey; Turkey at Flags of the Worl

Anthem Sports & Entertainment is a global media platform whose mission is to build destination channels for passionate communities. AXS TV is a leading music, entertainment & lifestyle channel reaching 50M+ U.S./North American homes weekly. Consisting of live concerts, artist profiles, feature films, celebrity interview shows, original scripted. Anthem, Inc. | 246,635 followers on LinkedIn. Improving Lives and Communities. Simplifying Health Care. Expecting More. | At Anthem, Inc., we believe that our health connects us all. So we focus.

Sefa (uitgesproken als: Sèfa) (30 juni 2000) is zowel de voornaam, als de artiestennaam van de Nederlandse diskjockey en muziekproducer Sefa Vlaarkamp (Alkmaar, 30 juni 2000).Sefa is actief binnen de hardcore scene, met als subgenre frenchcore. Hoewel Sefa zelf aangeeft dat zijn richtpunt ligt op frenchcore wordt er ook wel gesproken van een nieuwe beweging binnen de Hardcore, vanwege Sefa's. Cyprus, Asia ke ek des hai jiske culture aur itihaas Europe se milaa hai. Ii Mediterranean Sea me ek island hai. Iske capital Nicosia hai aur hian ke jaada log Greek me baat kare hai. Hian pe dher log Turkish me bhi baat kare hai. July 1974 me Turkey, Cyprus ke invade kar ke island ke north hissa ke Turkish Northern Cyprus banais Die Armenische Geheimarmee zur Befreiung Armeniens (armenisch Հայաստանի Ազատագրութեան Հայ Գաղտնի Բանակ, ՀԱՀԳԲ Hayasdani Azadakrut'ean Hay Kaghtni Panag, HAHKP, englisch Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia), kurz Asala, war eine marxistisch-leninistische Untergrundorganisation, die von 1975 bis in die frühen 1990er Jahre operierte

Pambansang Awit ng People's Republic of China Hong Kong Macau Mga panitik ni: Tian Han, 1934: Tugtugin: Nie Er, 1935: Inangkin: 1949-09-27 (provisional national anthem in mainland China) 1982-12-04 (official status Anthem's vast, ever-changing world features unpredictable conditions, hazards, and enemies. Over time, Anthem will develop and expand - introducing unique stories, challenges, and world-shaking events. This world is both beautiful and deadly - and will test you on each expedition you embark on with your Freelancer team. Ways to Play Anthem is a shared-world action-RPG, where players can delve into a vast world teeming with amazing technology and forgotten treasures. The world is also filled with savage beasts and ruthless. Prickly Pining Dining is the nineteenth episode of season one and the nineteenth episode on the series. When the camp chef falls ill, the entire camp goes to town for a meal, but due to not having brought in any money before they came in, Lumpus makes the camp dine and dash much to the turkey cashier and bear waiter's anger. However, they leave behind Lazlo, Raj and Clam who are sabotaging the.

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Command. This article is about the paragon attribute. For the commands typed into the chat window, see Special command. Command is a paragon secondary attribute . No inherent effect. Many Paragon skills, especially those that protect your allies or increase your tactical position on the battlefield, become more effective with higher Command Prior to the confirmation of the legal title, this song was called Somebody Give Me a Grade on this wiki. This song was a bonus track on the Wal-Mart exclusive version of the Phineas and Ferb: Across the 1st and 2nd Dimensions. During the second verse, the tempo gets faster due to the Bum-Bum-inator's malfunction Anthem: Social Movements and the Sound of Solidarity in the African Diaspora. by Shana L. Redmond. 4.6 out of 5 stars 10. Paperback. $27.49 $ 27. 49 $29.00 $29.00. Save $4.12 at checkout. Get it as soon as Fri, Aug 6. FREE Shipping by Amazon. More Buying Choices $17.45 (35 used & new offers

nationalanthems.info. Welcome! This website has been created to give some background on over 400 anthems past and present, as well as anthems of other entities. You will find background on the history of the anthem, and, on the right hand side of the page, you will see the anthem's title, its lyricist and composer, year the anthem was adopted. Anthem is a shared-world action-RPG, where players can delve into a vast world teeming with amazing technology and forgotten treasures. The world is also filled with savage beasts and ruthless marauders where Freelancers are called to defeat the forces plotting to conquer humanity. Up to four friends can unravel the world's mysteries and take on its most fearsome challenges together Last Updated 7/15/21 The Wheelswere sold at the Diamond Shop from June 27, 2019, to June 30, 2019 as part of a Wild Weekend Sale Every anthem is different, and the Sochi Games will give us the opportunity to hear patriotic tunes from all around the world. Drill down a bit further, and individual U.S. states have official.

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Turkish Aria (1868) Variations on own Mazurka (1847) Variations on 'Jechał Kozak za Dunaj' (1851) Variations on the Russian National Anthem (1851) Variations on the Austrian National Anthem (1853) Village Mazur (1850) Violin Concerto No.3 in A minor (1878) Violin Concerto in D major (1847 The British national anthem, 'God Save the Queen', has a famous chorus - but did you know the UK and Commonwealth National Anthem has another five verses? And do you know who composed the anthem? Here's everything you need to know about 'God Save the Queen', including its lyrics and composer Pakistan. /  33.667, 73.167. Rupee (Rs.) ( PKR) Ing Pakistan, opisyal a aus Islamic Republica ning Pakistan ( Urdu: اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان ), metung yang sovereign a bangsa atiu king Mauling Asia at ning keragulang Kalibudtang Middle Aslagan. Atin yang 1,046 kilometerrung pampang keng dane ning Arabian Dayat MalatSea king. Lyrics to USSR Anthem on Lyrics.com. Sergéi Mijalkov / Paul Robeson. Paul Leroy Robeson was an American bass baritone concert artist and stage and film actor who became famous both for his cultural accomplishments and for his political activism

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World War II (1939 - 1945) Location: Europe, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Southeast Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Mediterranean, North Africa, Oceania (included countries in Dogeandica), North and South America Soviet Union Dogeland. Dogestan. Isle of Doges. Communist Shiberland. Yosheeland. United States United Kingdom Chin Ermenistan Demokratik Cumhuriyeti. /  40.167°K 44.517°D  / 40.167; 44.517. Demokratik Ermeni Cumhuriyeti, Transkafkasya Demokratik Federatif Cumhuriyeti 'nin dağılmasından sonra Ermeni Devrimci Federasyonu tarafından kurulan bir de facto hükûmet. Uluslararası alanda tanınmamış ve 28 Mayıs 1918 tarihinde kurulduğu zaman eski. Status: Empire: Capital: Nishapur (1037-1043) Rey (1043-1051) Isfahan (1051-1118) Hamadan, Western capital (1118-1194) Merv, Eastern capital (1118-1153): Common languages: Persian (official & court language; lingua franca); Oghuz Turkish (dynastic and military language); Arabic (language of learning and religion); Government: Monarch